英语专业本科毕业文格式标准范文

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AFOLLOW-UPSTUDYONTRANERREDTEACHERS&rsquo,ENGLISHPRONUNCIATION

&mdash,ACaseinGuangdong

ADISSERTATIONSUBMITTEDINPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTORTHEDEGREEOFBACHELOROFARTS

By

JACKIELAM

Supervisedby

Prof.NobleHofmann

SOUTHCHINANORMALUNIVERSITY,GUANGZHOU,P.R.CHINA

JUNE,2006

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thepletionofthisstudycouldneverhebeenpossiblewithouttheassistanceofmanypeoplerelated.

Firstandforemost,Iwouldliketoshowmyheartfeltgratitudetomysupervisor,ProfessorXXX.Knowledgeableandresponsible,Prof.Xprovidedmewithvaluableguidanceandsupportineverystageofwritingthisthesis.Hemadewell-informedandenlighteningmentsontheanizationofthechapters,tookpainstogothroughingreatdetaileverydraftofthethesis.

ThanksareduetoAssociateProfessorXX,MissYYandMissPP,whohelpedmealotincollectingdata.

IwouldliketoexpresygreatgratitudetomyclasateFFF,andmydearAustralianteacherKK,whohebeenofgreathelpinanalyzingthedata.Theyhebeenverypatientandresponsiblethroughoutthewholework.

Lastbutnotleast,Iwanttoacknowledgemydebttothesixtranerredteachers,whospenttimeinprovidingtheoralmaterialswhenhingtheirhandull.

ABSTRACT

Qualityofteachershasalwaysbeenpaidgreatattentionto,especiallythatofprimaryschoolteachers,whoplaythemostinfluentialroleinstudents&rsquo,elementarylearning.In2001,asthenewNationalEnglishCurriculumrequiresthatEnglishshouldbetaughtfromGrade3inprimaryschools,anewtypeofprimaryschoolEnglishteachersnamedtranerredteachers&rdquo,cameintobeing.Tranerredteachersarethosenon-English-majorprimaryschoolteacherswhoshifttoteachEnglishaftergraduationfromatrainingprogramcalledIn-serviceTrainingforTranerredTeachers&rdquoByfar,theseteachershebeenteachingEnglishforoverfouryears,buttherehebeenfewfollow-upresearchesontheirpronunciationuptillnow.Thepresentstudyinvestigatesonthepronunciationoftranerredteachersconcerningconsonantsandvowels.Thegoalistofindoutwhethertheseteachers,whohereceivedonly3-weekpulsoryresidentialtrainingandayearlongoptionalschool-basedtraining,aremakingprogressandpetentforelementaryEnglishteaching.

Astimewaslimited,sixtranerredteacherswerechosenasoursubjects.ThestudywascarriedoutonthebasisoftheanalysisoftheerrorsontherecordedmaterialoftheEnglishutteranceborneoutbythesetranerredteachers.

KeyWords:thefirst,thesecond,thethird

中文摘 要

教师素质一直都备受关注,特别是小学教师的素质更是如此,因为小学教师在学生初级阶段的学习起着举足轻重的作用.于2001年,应新英语课程标准的要求,英语要从小学三年级教起,因此,一种被称为转岗教师&rdquo,的小学英语教师产生了.转岗教师&rdquo,是指从在职转岗培训毕业后从事小学英语教学的非英语专业教师.至今为止,这些老师已经从事小学英语教育有四年多了,但很少关于这些转岗老师语音的后续调查.本研究基于转岗教师的语音情况,求证这些只受过三周英语专业培训和一年的在职培训的转岗教师是否有所进步且能胜任于小学英语教学.

由于时间有限,在1102名转岗教师中,6名被选为本研究的受试.本研究是通过给六位老师的英语口头表达录音,并对录音进行其错误分析.

关 键 词:关 键 词1,关 键 词2,关 键 词3

TableofContents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

中文摘 要

TableofContents

ChapterOneIntroduction

1.1Background

1.2SignificanceoftheEmpiricalStudy

1.urposeofthePresentStudy

1.4StructureofthePresentStudy

ChapterTwoLiteratureReview

2.1DefinitionofTeachers&rsquo,Beliefs

2.2Teachers&rsquo,BeliefsandTeachingBehior

2.3TheExpectedTeachers&rsquo,BeliefsoftheNewCurriculum

ChapterThreeMethod

3.1TheParticipants

3.2Procedures

ChapterFourResultsandDiscussion

4.1StatusQuooftheTeachers&rsquo,Beliefs

4.2TheRelationshipbetweenTeachers&rsquo,BeliefsandTheirTeachingBehior

4.3Teachers&rsquo,MostConcerninCoursePlanning

ChapterFiveConclusionandResearchImplications

5.1TheImportanceofTeacherTraining

5.2ModificationoftheAssesentSystem

5.3OfferingAdequateTeachingFacilities

ChapterSixLimitations

References

AppendixI

AppendixII

ChapterOneIntroduction

1.1Background

Therecentsocietaltrendsoutlineneweducationalaimsdesignedtocreatethehighlyskilledteachersnecessaryforthe21stcentury.Insuchanewphaseofeducation,fruitfulteachingouteisbasedlargelyonnewteachingskills,whichefromfrequentteachingreflectionandbeliefrenewal.

Asamatteroffact,teachers&rsquo,beliefstendtoaffecteverythingtheydointheclassroom,nomatterimplicitorexplicit.Furthermore,teachers&rsquo,articulatedbeliefsisonething,andhowtheyapplytheminactualteachingisanotherthing.

1.2SignificanceoftheEmpiricalStudy

Aseducationpromotionisinevitableinthenewphaseofeducation,thebestwaytopromoteteachingouteistogetfeedbackfromteachersandlearnersandrefineteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingbehior.Judd(1981)andWade(2002)putforwardapplicablemethodologyforeducationimprovementbasedonsubstantialsurveys.Pateetal(1997)considerestablishinganintegrated,coherentcurriculumastheirultimateaimofresearches.

Manyotherexpertshealsoendowedgreatsignificancetothesesortsofresearch(Floden&,Klinzing1990,Pajares1992).AndBreenetal(2001)suggeststhattheseresearchescouldbeseenasameanstoexploringlanguageteaching.Infact,theseempiricalstudiescanhelptorefineteacherbeliefsandteachingbehioraswell.Mann(2005)addressesthatteachersdevelopbycollectingdataandreflecting.

1.urposeofthePresentStudy

Teachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingbehiorhebeenstudiedwidelyinthelastdecade(Pajares1992,Smith1997,Breenetal2001,Nunan2001,Wade2002,Burns2005).However,onlyafewqualitativestudiesaboutteachers&rsquo,beliefshebeencarriedoutthroughoutChina,letaloneinGuangdongProvince.Therefore,thereisagapinthisbodyofqualitativeresearchonteachers&rsquo,beliefsindifferentareasofGDsincetheimplementationoftheNewCurriculum.Thepresentstudyisattemptingtohelpfillthatgap.Furthermore,manyofthepriorresearcheswerecarriedoutonrelativelyallsamples,Woods(1996)madeastudyof8teachers,Wang(2002)targetedat3teachers,Zheng&,Jiang(2005)alsocarriedoutastudyupon3teachers.Hence,anothermotivationforthisstudywastomakeasurveyinconsiderablewidthandbreadth.

Thepresentstudytriestofindouttherelationshipbetweenteachers&rsquo,beliefsandtheirpracticalteachingbehiorintheNewCurriculumcontext,andinthemeantime,tofindoutsignificantproposalorteachertrainingandprovideeducatorswithvaluableperspectivesonteachingandcurriculumdevelopment.

1.4StructureofthePresentStudy

Startingfromdefinition,theauthorfirstofallfoundoutsomeexperts&rsquo,definitionofteachers&rsquo,beliefs&rdquo,,andthensummedituptobeamuchplainone.Thentheauthorproceededtomakeanalysisofthequestionnaires,aimingatfindingoutthestatusquoofteachers&rsquo,beliefsinGDProvince.Afterthat,theauthormadefurtheranalysisontheclassroomobservationlog,tryingtofindoutwhethertheteachers&rsquo,teachingbehiorwasconsistentwiththeirarticulatedbeliefs.Finally,face-to-faceinterviewswereconductedtofindouthowteachers&rsquo,beliefsguidetheirbehior,andwhatteachersusuallytakeintoaccountintheircourseplanning.

ChapterTwoLiteratureReview

2.1DefinitionofTeachers&rsquo,Beliefs

Definitionofbeliefayvaryaccordingtodifferentexperts.Sigel(1985)definesbeliefsaentalconstructionofexperience,whichguidesbehior.Nespor(1987)andWilliam&,Burden(1997)defineitasvaluesandattitudesoftheworldandisalsopredictorofbehior.Tobebrief,beliefstellbehior.

In1992,Pajareadeadefinitionofteachers&rsquo,beliefs&rdquo,asteachers&rsquo,attitudesabouteducation,aboutschooling,teaching,learning,andstudents(Pajares1992).Nespor(1987),Woods(1996)andWilliam&,Burden(1997)foundteachers&rsquo,beliefsiarmoreinfluentialthanknowledgeindeterminingclassroomwork.Breenetal(2002)alsoinfersthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsandexperiencesstronglyinfluencedclassroomwork.

Fromalltheabovedefinitions,theauthorsummedupteachers&rsquo,beliefs&rdquo,tobeteachers&rsquo,attitudesaboutteachingandlearning,whichwillaffecteverythingtheydointheclassroomteaching.

2.2Teachers&rsquo,BeliefsandTeachingBehior

Thewesterncountrieshadgonethrough3decadesintheresearchoftherelationshipbetweenteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingbehior.Freeman(2002)subdividestheperiodinto3broadtimeframes:workleadingupto1975,thedecadeofchange(1980-1990),andthedecadeofconsolidation(1990-2000).

Sincethe80s,anarrayofempiricalstudiesofteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingbehiorhebeencarriedout.Freeman(2002)probedtheimpactofteachers&rsquo,mentallives,priorknowledge,socialandinstitutionalcontext,etc.onteachingbehior,andfoundteachers&rsquo,beliefstoheapowerfulinfluenceontheirbehior.Actually,howteachers&rsquo,beliefsshapetheirbehiorinclassroomteachinghasbeenstudiedinvariousways(Meighan1990,Woods1996,Smith1997,Breenetal2001,B2003,Burns2005).

Chineseresearchershebeguntosetaboutstudyingteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingbehiorinrecentyears(Wang2002,Xia2002,Sun2005,Lou&,Liao2005).

Allthesestudiescollectivelyshowthatclassroomactivitiesarehighlyinfluencedbyteachers&rsquo,beliefs.However,someresearcheroundtheirsubjectstobehetheotherwayround.

Argyris&,Schö,n(1974,1987)arguethatthereisalmostalwaysadiscrepancybetweenteachers&rsquo,beliefsandthewaysteachersact(William&,Burden1997).Sun(2005)addressesthatthemostprominentprobleminEnglishclassroomteachingtobethegapbetweenthenewlyacquiredteachingbeliefsandtheeducationalpractice.Wang(2002)andLou&,Liao(2005)alsofoundsuchadiscrepancybetweentheirsubjectteachers&rsquo,behiorandbeliefs.Iftherereallyexistssuchadiscrepancy,theteachingmaybeinefficientorevenconfusing,whichmaybringaboutaseriesofproblemsinteachingandlearning.

2.3TheExpectedTeachers&rsquo,BeliefsoftheNewCurriculum

Chancesarethatgivenbetterteaching,learnerswilllearnmore.Theneweraofeducationcallorimprovedteachingbeliefsandbehiorasinstrumentstofacilitateandimprovestudentlearning.Thenewlyimplementedcurriculumputforwardfiveteachers&rsquo,beliefsaollows:

Focusingonmonfoundation,preparingforfurtherdevelopment,

Offerinariousoptions,cateringforpersonalneeds,

Optimizingthelearningmodel,enhancingself-directedlearningpetence,

Concerningwithstudents&rsquo,emotion,enhancingculturalawareness,

Promotingtheassesentsystem,encouragingcontinuousdevelopment.

(citedfromSeniorEnglishCurriculum2003:2-3)

Asamatteroffact,suchbeliefswereraisedtomeetthenewdemandsofoursociety,tomeetthenewlearningneedsofourstudents.Onconditionthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingwereconsistentwiththeNewCurriculum,fruitfulteachingoutewouldbeyielded.

However,thequestionsare:What&rsquo,sthestatusquoofteachers&rsquo,beliefsDotheybeheinaccordancewiththeirarticulatedbeliefsAndwhatdotheteachersusuallytakeintoaccountinteachingTofindoutallthecorrespondinganswers,theauthorcarriedoutasurveyofteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingbehiorinGDProvince.

ChapterThreeMethod

Thesurveyconsistedof3instruments:①ateacherquestionnairedevelopedbytheauthor(consistedofthreesections:SectionOne--personaldataandexperience,etc,SectionTwo--a25itemteacherbeliefsectionbasedonthe5guidelinesoftheNewCurriculuminseniorhighpublishedbytheMinistryofEducation(Item1&ndash,5onBelief1,Item6-10onBelief2,andtherestmaybededucedbyanalogy),SectionThree--2openquestionsaboutteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteacherconcern)(SeeAppendix1),②anobservationlog(prisinggeneralinformationanda10-periodclassroomobservationlog(SeeAppendix2),③aninterviewoutline(SeeAppendix3).

ApilotstudywasconductedinoneTypeBschoolfromGuangzhouinearlySeptember2005.Basedonthefeedbackfromthepilotstudy,theauthormaderevisionsinthesurveyinstruments.

3.1TheParticipants

10schoolrom5ofthecitiesinGDProvinceparticipatedinthisstudy.Theparticipantswerecarefullychosen:thecapitalcityofGD--Guangzhou(广州),twoperipheralcities--Foshan(佛山)andNanhai(南海),tworelativelyremotecities--Puning(普宁)andShantou(汕头),respectively.10researchersdividedthe10schoolsamongthemduringtheirteachingpractices.However,only8schools&rsquo,datawereintactandpossibleforanalysis.Altogether,therewere27teacherromthese8schools.

Table1summarizesthecharacteristicsofallthesubjectteachers.18workedinGradeOne,and9workedinGradeTwo.Therewere17femaleand10maleteachers.Theteachershadvaryingdegreesofgeneralteachingexperiencerangingfrom1to43years.Theerageteachingexperienceacrossthesamplewas12.7years.Amongthem,26teachershadreceivedtheNewCurriculumtraining.

Table1.TheTeachers&rsquo,Characteristics

GenderGradeCurriculumTrainingAverageTeachingExperience(year)MaleFemaleOneTwoReceivedNotYetNo.101718926112.7

Forthesakeofbeingasobjectiveaspossible,School7andSchool8alsoexcludedinthefollowingdiscussions,becauseonlyonesubjectteacherwasailablefromeachofthesetwoschools.Consequently,thefollowingresultsanddiscussionswerebasedon6schools.

3.2Procedures

3.2.1TheTeacherQuestionnaireSurvey

Firstly,theresearchersinvitedtheteacherstofillintheTeacherQuestionnaire(TQ)andfixedatimewiththeteacherorclassroomobservation.Teacherilledinthegeneralinformationandindicatedthelevelofendorsementofeachofthe25itemsusinga5-pointLikert-typescaleprisingthecategoriesstronglydisagree,&rdquo,disagree,&rdquo,somewhatdisagree,somewhatagree,&rdquo,agree,&rdquo,andstronglyagree,&rdquo,scoredas1through5,respectively,thentheyrespondedtothe2openquestionsconcerningwithteachers&rsquo,opinionsandsuggestionsoftheNewCurriculum(seeTable2).

Table2.The2OpenQuestionsintheTeacherQuestionnaire

PleasewritedownyouropinionsandsuggestionsoftheNewCurriculum1.Themostobviouschanges①&hellip,②&hellip,③&hellip,2.Themosturgentproblemstobesolved①&hellip,②&hellip,③&hellip,

AsisshowninTable2,Question1tellswhetherteachershenoticedthemostobviouschangesofthecurriculum.AndQuestion2enablestheauthortoperceivetheteachers&rsquo,mostconcern,whichwouldserveasabasistofindoutwhetherteachersadoptedparticularteachingstrategiestoenhancetheirstudents&rsquo,weakpoint,sincetheyhenoticedwheretheproblemslied.

3.2.2ClassroomObservation

Astheremayexistadiscrepancybetweenteachers&rsquo,beliefsandbehior,andapartfromthis,teacherayoverstateorunderstatethebeliefsunderlyingtheiractualpractice.Therefore,whetherteachersteachinaccordancewiththeirbeliefscanonlyberevealedfromtheobservationofpracticalteaching.

Hence,theseconddatacollectionmethodwasbaseduponasubstantialclassroomobservationlog.Theresearchersrecorded10periodsofEnglishclassesofeverysubjectschool.The10Englishclasseswerenotspecificallychosen,butobservedatrandom,generatingathoroughandobjectivedata.Theobservationfocusedonclassroomactivities,multimediaapplied,textbookdealt,assesentforms,andoptionalcourses,etc.

3.2.3TheInterview

Inordertoprehendmoreabouthowteachers&rsquo,beliefsguidetheirbehior,andwhatteachersusuallytakeintoaccountintheirteaching,face-to-faceinterviewswereadded,andtheinterviewwithteacherswassemi-structured.Table3showstheoutlineoftheinterview.

Table3.OutlineoftheSemi-structureInterview

InterviewSubject:SeniorHighEnglishTeachersinGuangzhou①HowdoyouusuallydesignalessonAndwhataboutactivities②HowdoyoulikethepresenttextbookAndhowdoyouapplyit③DoyouthinkitisnecessaryforstudentstoenhancetheirculturalawarenessHowdoyouhelpyourstudentsenlargetheirscopeofbackgroundknowledge

Theauthorarrangedinterviewswith12SeniorOneEnglishteacherrom6schools(ComprisingTypeA,TypeBandTypeCschools)inGZ,2teacherromeverysubjectschoolparticipatedintheinterview.Theinterviewswererecordedimplicitlybymp3,andweretranscribedintowrittenlanguagelater.

3.2.4DataAnalysis

AlldatawereanalyzedusingtheStatisticalPackageforSocialScientists(SPSS),release10.0andMicrosoftExcel,release2003.

MeanandstandarddeviationoftheTQwereanalyzedbyusingDescriptives,histogramsweregeneratedbyusingExceltoillustratetheresultoreplainly.Andwithin-groupdifferencesof25teachers&rsquo,beliefsofthe6subjectschoolswereanalyzedbyusingOne-wayANOVA.

ChapterFourResultsandDiscussion

Afterallthedatawerecollected,theauthorbegantoarrangethedataandanalyzethem.Firstly,theauthorsortedoutallthereceivedquestionnaires.AndfoundoutthevalidpercentoftheTQwas100%.Table4indicatesthegeneralinformationofthequestionnairesobtainedfromthe6schools.

Table4.InformationoftheReceivedTQ

QuestionnaireReceivedValidInvalidValidPercentNumber25250100%

4.1StatusQuooftheTeachers&rsquo,Beliefs

4.1.1MeanandStd.DeviationoftheTQ

Startingfromdataanalysis,theauthorcarriedoutDescriptiveStatisticsanalysistoanalyzetheTQ,showingthatallthemeansofthe5beliefsarewithintherangeof3.5to4.4&rdquo,,therefore,conclusioncanbedrawnthatallthesubjectteachersAgree①&rdquo,witheverybeliefadvocatedintheNewCurriculum.ThentheauthorputthedatafromFigure1intotheMicrosoftExcel,generatingahistogramaollows:

Figure1.MeanofEveryBelief

BeliefsNMeanS.D.B1254.0560.4917B2253.9920.6843B3254.3600.5132B4254.3440.5050B5253.9040.5200

Asisillustratedabove,thehistogramindicatesthatthemeansofBelief2(Offerinariousoptions,cateringforpersonalneeds)andBelief5(Promotingtheassesentsystem,encouragingcontinuousdevelopment)scorethelowestamongthefivebeliefs.Thecausesofthisresultmaybe:optionalclassandformativeevaluation,etc.arenewlyadvocated,paredwiththeotherbeliefs,andittakestimetogetthoroughendorsementfromalltheteachers.Whereas,thoseofBelief3(Optimizinglearningmodel,enhancingself-directedlearningpetence)andBelief4(Concerningwithstudents&rsquo,emotion,enhancingculturalawareness)scorerelativelyhigh,becauselearner-centeredandbackgroundknowledgehebeenheardoflongbefore.

Afterthat,theauthormadeanotherDescriptiveStatisticsanalysistofindoutthemeanandstandarddeviationoftheteachers&rsquo,beliefsineverysubjectschool.Figure2illustratestheresultsoftheDescriptiveStatisticsanalysis.Meanof4ofthesubjectschoolsisalsowithintherangeof3.5to4.4&rdquo,,asameconclusioncanbedrawnthattheseschoolsAgree&rdquo,withtheNewCurriculum,andSchool2andSchool3gotameanhigherthan4.4&rdquo,,what&rsquo,more,meanofSchool2iswithin4.5to5&rdquo,,whichindicatesthatteacherromschool2Stronglyagree&rdquo,withtheNewCurriculum.

Figure2.MeanofEverySubjectSchool

SchoolsNMeanS.D.S153.7280.4502S244.5300.3523S344.4100.3965S434.0933.3717S533.7867.2344S664.2067.4236Total254.1312.4607

Figure1andFigure2revealthatteacherromeverysubjectschoolAgree&rdquo,orStronglyagree&rdquo,witheveryteacher&rsquo,sbeliefputforwardintheNewCurriculum.Figure2alsoindicatesthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsdifferindifferentschools.Thehistogramdisplaysimpressivedifferencesamongthesubjectschoolsplainly,andschool1&,5bearagreatdistancefromSchool2&,3intheendorsementoftheNewCurriculum.Toconfirmthishypothesis,aOne-wayANOVAanalysiswasconducted.

4.1.2AComparisonofTeachers&rsquo,BeliefsinEverySubjectSchool

Whenmeansofthebeliefswerepared,theOne-wayANOVAresultsindicatedthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsindifferentschoolsdifferedsignificantly,sig.等于.047,P<,0.05(illustratedinFigure3).Since26outofthe27teachershegottheNewCurriculumtraining.Thepossiblecausesofsuchdifferencemaybeduetoteachers&rsquo,differentinterpretationoftheNewCurriculum,restraintoftheirstudents&rsquo,levelorconfinementoftheparticularteachingcontextineverysubjectschool.

Figure3.One-wayANOVAofTeachers&rsquo,Beliefs

SumofSquaresdfMeanSquareFSig.BetweenGroups2.1555.4312.786.047WithinGroups2.93819.155Total5.09324

Tomakeaclassificationofallthesubjectschools,HomogeneousSubsetsanalysiswasdirected.Figure4demonstratedthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsinSchool1andSchool5weresignificantlydifferentfromthoseinSchool3andSchool2,fortheyarenotinthesamecolumn.School4,6,3and2areidenticalintermsofendorsementoftheNewCurriculum,becausetheyareinthesamecolumn.

Figure4.HomogeneousSubsetsofEverySubjectSchool

NSubsetforalpha等于.05Schools123DuncanSchool153.7280School533.78673.7867School434.09334.09334.0933School664.20674.20674.2067School344.41004.4100School244.5300Sig..134.054.170

UsesHarmonicMeanSampleSize等于3.913.

DescriptiveStatisticsoftheTQrevealedthatallsubjectteacherromGDProvinceAgree&rdquo,orStronglyagree&rdquo,withtheNewCurriculum.AndOne-wayANOVAanalysisillustratedthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsvariedfromoneschooltoanother.School2andschool3scoredthehighestamongthe6schools,whichindicatedthattheyendorsedtheNewCurriculumthemost.However,chancesarethatsometeachersshowedgreatapprovaltotheNewCurriculumjustbecausetheyknewaboutitfromtheteachertraining.However,howtheybeheinactualteachingstillremainsaquestion.Furthermore,teachers&rsquo,articulatedbeliefsisonethingandhowtheyapplytheirbeliefsintoteachingisanotherthing.

4.2TheRelationshipbetweenTeachers&rsquo,BeliefsandTheirTeachingBehior

Tofindoutwhetherteachersteachinlightoftheirbeliefs,analysisoftheanswerstothe2openquestionsintheTQwasconducted.Withtheteachers&rsquo,mostconcerninmind,furtheranalysisonwhetherteachersadoptedparticularstrategiestotackletheobstacleswasdirected.

4.2.1Teachers&rsquo,ArticulatedBeliefs

Thedatarevealedalmost72opinionsandsuggestionsputforwardbyallthesubjectteachers.Table5listedoutfivemostwidelysharedcategoriesofteacherconcernforeachquestion.

Table5.TeacherConcernontheCurrentCurriculumandTeaching

Item1.ThemostobviouschangesoftheNewCurriculum①moredemandingforteachersandstudents,②renewalandincreaseofthecapacityofthetextbook,③moreinteractionbetweenteachersandstudents,④focuoreoncultivatingstudents&rsquo,integrativeabilityinlearning,knowledgeapplying,participation,cooperationandmunication,⑤closertoauthenticdailylife.Item2.Themosturgentproblemstobesolved①therenewalofteachers&rsquo,teachingbeliefsandstudents&rsquo,expectationsofteaching,②theconflictbetweentheNewCurriculumandtheCollegeEntranceExamination(theconflictbetweenintegrativeskillsdevelopmentandexam-orientededucation),③theconflictbetweenstudents&rsquo,abilityandthehighlydemandingnewteachingmaterialsandactivities(esp.listening),④thecoherenceofthejuniorhightextbookandseniorhighone(esp.vocabulary),⑤largecapacityofthecontentinthetextbookversusinadequatecoursehours(notenoughtimeforassimilationandconsolidation).

Tosumup,mostteachershenoticedtherenewalofthecurriculumandheperceiveditscharacteristicsandadvantages.Theyalsofoundthecurrentcurriculumtobemoredemandingfortheirstudents,owingtothedramaticallyincreasedcapacityofthetextbookandlimitedcoursehours.Inthemeantime,theycallforcoherenceofthejuniorhighandseniorhighcurriculum,andnewtestingformula.Thesearethesharedconcernofmostteachers,however,thequestionsare:Sincethey&rsquo,venoticedtheproblems,didtheyadoptparticularteachingbehiortomakeupforthisOrhowmanyteachersheattemptedtoOnlysubstantialobservationcouldtell.

4.2.2ObservationLogofPracticalClassroomTeaching

Bearingtheteachers&rsquo,mostconcerninmind,theauthorproceededtoanalyzeallthedataontheteachers&rsquo,behiorintheclassroomasrecordedinthe6researchers&rsquo,classroomobservationlogs.The10-periodclassroomobservationlogsrecordedmorethan5teacherromGradeOneandGradeTwoineverysubjectschool.Hence,thesedatacoveredarangewideenoughtorepresentthewholesubjectschool.

ClassificationandanalysisoftheobservationlogrevealedthatmostschoolsadoptedthetextbookNewSeniorEnglishforChina,whileschoolsinFoshanandNanhaiadoptedtheoneSeniorHighEnglish.Nearlyalltheschoolsappliedthetextbooklexiblybysupplyingextramaterials,omitting,adapting,orsimplifyingthecontentstomeettheirstudents&rsquo,particularlevel.Intermsofmultimediafacilities,2schoolswerefoundtobeequippedonlywithradiosandprojectors.2schoolshen&rsquo,tofferedoptionalcoursesyet,andonly50%ofthesubjectschoolscarriedoutformativeevaluation.Table6outlinessomeotherbasicpracticalteachinginformationcollectedfromtheclassroomobservation.

Table6.ThePracticalTeachingInformation

ClassroomActivitiesOptionalCoursesMultimediaApplicationFormativeEvaluationSchool1Reading,chorus,discussion,survey,petitionofwords,writing,retellingNewConceptEnglish,WritingRadio,puterNotyetSchool2Reading,chorus,discussion,role-play,writing,listeningAudio-lingua-visualEnglish,LearningbySingingRadio,puterNotyetSchool3Reading,chorus/RadioYesSchool4Reading,chorus,discussion,drills,role-play,interview,surveyInquiryStudyRadio,puterNotyetSchool5Discussion/Radio,projectorYesSchool6Chorus,discussion,role-play,dictationNewConceptEnglishRadio,projector,puterYes

Theabovetablelistsoutallthepracticalteachinginformationrecordedintheclassroomobservationlogs,revealingallthesubjectteachers&rsquo,teachingbehior.Inordertofindoutwhethertheseteachers&rsquo,particularteachingbehiorisalignedwiththeirconcern,theauthordrewoutthemostwidelysharedbeliefsofeverysubjectschoolandtriedtofindouthowthesebeliefsinfluencedteachers&rsquo,teachingbehior.Table7showstheteacherconcernandtheirparticularteachingbehiorineverysubjectschool.TheresultsshowedthatteachersinSchools1,4and6adoptedparticularclassroomactivitiestoenhancetheirstudents&rsquo,weakpoints,andtocultivateparticularskills,whileSchool3failedtoemployexpectedteachingstrategies(seeTable7).

Table7.TeacherConcernandTeachingBehior

TeacherConcernParticularClassroomActivitiesSchool1HowwouldEnglishbetestedinCollegeEntranceExam(CEE)Writing,retelling,petitionofwordsSchool2ThesequenceofgrammarisunsystematicN.OSchool3①Toincreasestudents&rsquo,interestinEnglish,②Toincreaseinstructionofculturalbackgroundknowledge,③Torenewteachers&rsquo,beliefs,④TogetridoftheconflictbetweenthenewcurriculumandCEE.Reading,chorusSchool4Students&rsquo,oralEnglishistoopoortocarryoutclassroomactivitiesChorus,discussion,drills,role-play,interviewSchool5/N.OSchool6①Thedramaticallyincreasedcapacity,esp.vocabularyisdemanding,②Thelisteningpartsinthetextbookareverydifficult.Dictation

a)N.O等于notobserved,

b)TeacherromSchool5saidtheyhadnomentontheNewCurriculum.

ItwasstrikingfortheauthortofindthatSchools2and3,asisshowninFigure4,althoughscoredthehighestinthemeanofTQ,actuallyfailedtoteachinaccordancewiththeirbeliefs,orfailedtorenewtheirbeliefs(themostconcerninSchool2wasgrammarinstruction&rdquo,).TheauthorguessedthattheexplanationaybethatteacherromSchools2and3werequitewellinformedofthenewbeliefs,however,theyhadn&rsquo,tappliedthemfullyinpracticalteaching,thusresultinginthediscrepancybetweentheirbehiorandbeliefs.

Amongthoseschoolsthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsandtheirbehiorwereconsistent,School4hadarelativeconformityinteachers&rsquo,beliefsandpracticalclassroomteaching,andwaswellequippedwithmultimediaandofferedvariousclassroomactivitiestoenhancestudents&rsquo,integratedskills.Andlastbutnotleast,itwastheonlyoneofthe6schoolsthatofferedtheoptionalcourse&mdash,InquiryStudy,inwhichstudentswentintothemunitytodosurveys(seetable6).

4.3Teachers&rsquo,MostConcerninCoursePlanning

Alltheaboveanalysisdemonstratedthatteachers&rsquo,behiorswereconsistentwiththeirbeliefsinmostschools,whilesometeachers,forexample,inSchool2andSchool3,failedtoteachinaccordancewiththeirbeliefs,althoughtheyscoredthehighestintheTQ.Nevertheless,chancesarethattheseteacherayactuallyheeacrossdifficultiesinteaching,orintherenewalandapplicationoftheirbeliefs.

Tofindoutthepossibledifficulties,interviewswithteacherustbeconductedtofindouthowteachers&rsquo,beliefsguidetheirbehior,andwhattheyusuallytakeintoaccountincourseplanning.Theauthoranalyzedtheanswerstotheopenquestionsintheteachers&rsquo,questionnairesandtheinterviewrecordsofthe12teachers,reflectingtheteachers&rsquo,mainconcernincourseplanning,whichcanbesummedupaollows:

①ManydemandsoftheNewCurriculumversuslimitedcoursehours.TheNewCurriculumiuchmoredemanding,therearesomanytaskstofulfillinclassthatwenolongerhetimetoreviewthelessons,andstudentsintendtobeobliviousofwhattheyhelearntsoonafterclass.&rdquo,accordingtomostsubjectteachers.

②Theconflictbetweenintegratedskillsdevelopmentandexam.IntheopenquestionsintheTQandtheinterview,manyteacherscalledforacorrespondingandplausibleCollegeEntranceExaminationformula,whichwasexpectedtobealignedwiththeNewCurriculum,

③Inlackofteachingfacilities.Theobservationlogsrevealedthatmostareasstilllackedforthebasicteachingnecessitiessuchassoundlabsandmultimedia,etc.(seeMultimediaApplicationinTable6).

Inaword,thereexistedthreefactorsthatteacherswouldtakeintoaccountincourseplanning.

Tosumup,analysisofthequestionnairesshowedthatteachers&rsquo,beliefsvariedgreatlyfromoneschooltoanother,themeanofwhichfluctuaterom3.7280to4.5300.Classificationoftheclassroomobservationlogsrevealedthatteachers&rsquo,behiorwasconsistentwiththeirbeliefsinmostschools,whilesometeachers&rsquo,practicalteachingwasdisjointedfromtheirarticulatedbeliefs.Analysisoftheteacherconcernandtheinterviewenabledtheauthortoperceivewhatteachersconcernthemostinteaching.

ChapterFiveConclusionandResearchImplications

Thepresentresearchcarriedoutasurveyofthestatusquoofteachers&rsquo,beliefsandtheirteachingbehiorintheNewCurriculumcontextinGuangdongProvincebymeansofquestionnaire,classroomobservationlogandinterview.Byintensiveanalysis,theauthorfoundthatfirstly,teacher&rsquo,sbeliefsdifferedsignificantlyfromoneschooltoanother,secondly,teachersinmostschoolsteachinaccordancewiththeirbeliefs,whereassometeachers&rsquo,behiorwasdisjointedfromtheirbeliefs,althoughtheyshowedthattheyStronglyagree&rdquo,withtheNewCurriculumintheTQ.Inthemeantime,theauthorgotapleasantsurprisetofindthatoneoutofthe6subjectschools,aschoolfromShantou,hadarelativeconformityinpracticalclassroomteachingandteachers&rsquo,beliefs.Finally,amoreintensiveanalysiswaadetofindouttheteachers&rsquo,difficultiesinrenewingtheirbeliefsorapplyingtheirbeliefsintoteaching.

Alloftheabovefindingsstimulatedtheauthortoreflectandresultedinmuchenlightenment.Thefindingromthestudysuggestedthatimpactofvaryingsocialandinstitutionalcontextplayedasignificantroleinteachers&rsquo,thinkingandaction.Andteachertrainingshouldalwaystaketheleadingroleinthelongrunofeducationalreform.Tobemorespecific,3implicationsgeneratedfromthestudy.Theywererelatedtoteachertraining,assesentsystemandteachingfacilities,respectively.

5.1TheImportanceofTeacherTraining

Fromtheinterviews,theauthorfoundthatmostteachers,especiallytheinexperiencedteachers,expressedthattheyneedprofessionalguidancetohelpthemenhancetheirteachingskills.Infact,continuouspre-serviceandin-serviceteachertrainingshouldbeheldregularly,makingsurethatteachersarenewlyinformedofthesocietaltrendandarequalifiedtomeetthenewteachingdemands.

Asweallknow,teachertrainingusedtofocusonteachingskills.However,thenewlyexpectedteachers&rsquo,beliefsandteachingskillsrequireformoreefficienttraining,whichconsistsofbeliefrenewal,professionaldevelopmentandmultimediaapplication.

5.1.1TrainingonBeliefRenewal

ThepresentresearchfoundthatmanyexperiencedteacherswereresistanttotheNewCurriculum,someofwhomwerestillteachingintheirassumedbestway,regardlessofthenewdemands.Theseteachersneedtobeinformedthatthe21stcenturycallornewteachingskillstobringstudentsupbyusinghighlyskilledteachingstrategiesandcurriculathatconnecttotherealdailylifeandcaterfordifferentneedsofstudents,andmotivationalaswell.Andtraditionalteacherswouldbeconfrontedwiththedangerofdroppingoutiftheywerenotqualifiedenoughtorespondtothenewmission.Tobearfruitfulteachingouteinthenewphaseofeducation,teachersaresupposedtoteachinariousandcreativeway.Sometimes,practicingthesameskillindifferentwayseachtimeandfulfillingsometasksinacreativewaywouldbreedpleasantoute,forinstance,hingoralclassesinanopenairoracafé,,ifpossible,orwritingareportwithananizedpractice/visitbeforehandwillprobablycheerupthestudents.

5.1.2TrainingonProfessionalDevelopment

Firstly,teachersareencouragedtogetfurthereducationtobroadentheirhorizonandenlargetheirscopeofknowledge,sothattheywillhelessdifficultiesinhelpingstudentsenhancetheirculturalawareness.

Secondly,teachersareexpectedtopromotetheirteachingskillsbyreflection,andinteraction,etc.Anon-lineteachingforumcanbesetupasaby-producttoofferteacherschancestoexchangeexperienceandthought.Thisstudyrevealedthatteacherromdifferentareasvariedintheirteachingbeliefsandclassroompractice.Hence,itwouldbebeneficial,ifpossible,toestablishanon-lineteachingforum,suchasBBS,Group,etc.forexchangingideasandexperience.

Finally,trainingonresearchmethodsshouldbeofferedtoteachersandteachersbeencouragedtocarryoutschool-basedresearchesoreducationalexperiments.Bythisway,teacherscanreflectfromthefindingsorfeedback,andimprovetheirteaching,evenhelptorefinethecurriculum.

5.1.3TrainingonMultimediaApplication

Theinterviewrevealedthatsometeachersdidn&rsquo,tapplymultimediatofacilitatingtheirteachingjustbecausetheyhen&rsquo,tmasteredtheskills.Hence,adequatetrainingshouldbecarriedouttoensurethatteacherasterbasicskillsinmultimediaapplicationtofacilitatingclassroomteaching.Andmoredemandingskillsinmanagingblogs,BBS,Zone,orGroup,etc.aredesired.

Nowadays,nearlyeveryclasshasestablishedaGroup,andstudenteetintheGroupoutofclass.ThetopicsusuallyrangefromliveTVprogramstohomeworkandanswerstothehomework,andsoon.Someclassoutingsarealsodecidedandanizedhere.

Beinginspiredfromthis,theauthorthoughtthatmaybeagroupforInquiryStudieswouldbepossibleifdirectedinasystematicway.Infact,theauthorhadtriedtoestablishsuchaGroupinSenior1forEnglishlearning,wherestudentswereadvocatedtomunicateinEnglish②.Andtheauthorfoundittobeeryadvisablewaytofosterstudents&rsquo,interestinstudyandtohelpthemlearnEnglishwhileentertaining.

5.2ModificationoftheAssesentSystem

TheanswerstotheopenquestionsandtheinterviewrecordsillustratedthatmostteacherswereconcernedwiththeCollegeEntranceExamination(CEE).Andsomeofthemexpressedthattheywillstillteachintheirtraditionalways,becausetheythoughtthattheirstudents&rsquo,ultimateaimofseniorhighstudywastogetahighmarkintheCEE,anditwasthisideathatmadetheteachingremainexam-oriented.Fortunately,thereweremuchmoreyoungteacherstaughtinlightofthenewbeliefs,andfortheseteachers,theirmostconcernwas:WhatwouldbetestedinCEE&rdquo,Therefore,anewassesentsystemisimperativeunderthenewsituation.Luckily,theNewCurriculumputforwardformativeevaluation&rdquo,,anditwillbenefitbothteachingandlearning,aslongasitisconductedsystemically.

Nevertheless,theobservationlogrevealedthat50%ofthesubjectschoolshadn&rsquo,tdirectedthestudentstomakeself-evaluationinalearningprocesileaswasexpected,inotherwords,formativeevaluation&rdquo,wasnotyetcarriedoutthoroughly.

Asamatteroffact,theconceptofabinationofformativeevaluation&rdquo,andsummativeevaluation&rdquo,,thoughnewlyimplemented,issignificantandworthy.Formativeevaluationisbeneficialinthatitenablesstudentstogetasenseoftheirprogressandachievementpromptlyinthelongrunoflearning.

Wu(2003:38-41)arguesthatwecanmotivatestudentsbymodifyingtheassesentsystem,sheadvocatesanalyticassesent&rdquo,,inwhichteachersofferdiachronicevaluationandevaluatestudentswithadynamicview.Sheendedthereportbysaying,Ashiftinthewayweevaluatelearnerscanworkwonders.&rdquo,Infact,amodificationofthepresentassesentsystemmayhelptomakeourteachingmuchmorequalityoriented.


5.3OfferingAdequateTeachingFacilities

Theobservationlogsalsoshowedthattherestillexistedsomeschoolslackinginprojectors,TVsetinclassroom,letaloneputeraccesstotheInter,educationandinformationwebsites.Asweallknow,thecurrenttrendineducationwitnessesanincreasingemphasisonvariousoptionsandmulti-accesorself-directedlearning.Actually,theschoolboardsortheMinistryofEducationareresponsibleforsupplyingtheunderdevelopedareaswithtechnologicaladvances.

ChapterSixLimitations

Thisresearchintendedtocollectdatafrom10schoolsof5citiesinGDProvince,whichwasprovedtobeimpossiblebecauseofvariousreasons,theauthorcanonlycollectintactdatafrom8schools,and2schoolswereexcludedinthediscussions,becauseonlyoneteacherquestionnairewasretrievedfromeachofthesetwoschools.Theauthorhopedthatfurtherresearchwouldbecarriedoutinthiieldtofindoutmoreperspectiveoreducationdevelopment

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AppendixI

AppendixII